Paper produced in neutral environment without acids, in the past for the paper sizing alum-sulphate was used generating an increase in the paper acidity that decreased its resistance over time, obviously an undesired side effect.
A book-making procedure 63 that involves sewing or gluing signatures and then adding a cover. The most common are hardback binding and soft cover binding, with all their variants.
Printing that impresses a design (embossed or debossed) on the paper without using inks. It is performed using a metallic die (cliché) and a counter-die, between which the sheet is placed.
Rigid paper support with a weight of more than 450 g/m².
A variant of the hardback binding in which plates are made rigid cardboard, can or not be coated, while back is flexible, and covered with paper cloth remain exposed.
Paper having a higher than average thickness at par grammage. It can be used to increase the bulk of a publication with few pages. It is less transparent than papers of the same grammage and normal thickness. The apparent specific volume is the ratio between the thickness, measured with a micrometer, and grammage of a sheet of paper. For example, Acquarello paper 160 g/m² is 232 microns thic and consequently has an apparent specific volume of 1.45.
A fibrous substance of vegetal origin and the main ingredient of paper. It can be obtained from trees and plants using various extraction and processing systems. Papers are usually made up of a blend of different pulps.
Laid wire cloth: wires of steel, phosphorous bronze or brass wires twisted and tied to ribs that have perforations across which laid wires will be threated through in order to fasten them to the wire cloth.
Paper with a coated surface layer, with a different composition depending on the required finish. Thanks to its smooth and low-absorbent surface, coated paper offers a better printing performance than uncoated paper. Available finishes include gloss, satin or matt, and versions can be coated on both sides or only one.
Conical wooden strips applied to the wooden frame, previously drilled to pass the steel wire and tie the wire, or the bottom canvas, to the wooden frame.
Cotton represents the most noble raw material for producing paper. Its fibres are the longest and the most flexible available on the market. The paper produced with them maintains the same characteristics, for this reason banknote and professional artist papers are 100% cotton. Being wood free by nature cotton papers are more durable compared to wood pulp papers.
A preparatory operation for folding, to mark the folding line with a crease and thereby avoid surface defects and cracks. It may be carried out simultaneously with diecutting. It is necessary when folding heavy papers and boards.
Non-fixed wooden frame, resting on the perimeter of the frame to allow the fibrous / cellulose dough to hold and delimit the size of the sheet. The internal dimensions of the deckle (long side, short side, thickness) correspond to the size of the sheet (sheet revenue) and the internal thickness varies according to the weight of the sheet you want to obtain.
A metal die used to cut a sheet of paper into a particular shape. It is required in all cases where the desired shape is not a simple rectangle but has irregular or curved outlines. A die cutter can also be used for creasing and for envelope windows.
A printing system that makes it possible to produce printed matter without creating a plate, by direct processing of a digital file. There are three main types: electro-ink (such as HP Indigo), toner and ink-jet. Digital printing is a good solution for printing small print runs because it lowers the costs involved in traditional printing technologies (plates, start-up, waste, etc.). It is also used in print-on-demand systems and custom printing (customisation).
Abbreviation of the Deutsches Institut für Normung. ISO 216.
Identifies Elemental Chlorine Free bleached wood pulp. It means that the bleaching process has been made without the use of chlorine dioxide.
Paper characterized on the surface by drawings or textures in relief, obtained through the passage between a steel cylinder, which bears an engraved pattern, and a cylinder of sagging material. Designs can vary greatly, sometimes imitating the surface of other materials (canvas, wood, etc.). Embossing is carried out dry, after the paper production process, through the use of an embossing machine. Surface textures can be present on one side only (monogoffed paper) or on both sides.
A sheet of resistant paper used in hardback binding; half of this quarto (four page section) is glued to the inside of the cover board, while the other side is partially glued to the book block.
Certifies that emissions into the environment (air, water, solf) during paper production, meet criteria set by the European Union in terms of environmental sustainability.
Felt marked paper
Paper with a slightly coarse texture (e.g. with a hammered or ribbed effect). The marking is performed in the paper machine while the paper is still moist, and may be applied to one or both sides of the sheet.
Phenomenon whereby the fibers, in the presence of water, intertwine and bind to each other, forming a fibrous context resistant to various stresses
A stage in the printing process in which the sheet passes through specific machines that fold it in several stages, in accordance with the required specification, to produce signatures or leaflets (see diagram on the right).
Four – colour printing
A system for the reproduction and printing of images and colours, that makes it possible to simulate a wide chromatic range through the combination of four inks (cyan, magenta, yellow and black, abbreviated as CMYK); intensity is set by the frequency or ruling of the halftone screen.
Identifies an industrial machine used in the paper industry to produce paper in large volumes. Machine for the production of paper, which from a dough (the composition of which varies depending on the types of paper) produces a continuous tape. It consists of a wet part (where paper is formed) and the drying zone, where excess water is eliminated and the final collation takes place. Some processes, such as marking (marked paper) and laid (paper stamped), take place inside the continuous machine.
External frame, of variable sizes (long side, short side, depth), on which ribs are fitted, in Douglas fir or Swiss Pine that are resistant to water and chemical additives in the pulp. The laid or wove cloth cover is then fixed to the frame by means of copper or brass nails.
The Forest Stewardship Council® A.C. shall promote environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable managements of the world’s forest. The wood pulp labelled with the FSC® logo is certified as respectful of the forest heritage and the people living in the same area.
Glue binding (4-sided glued block binding)
Binding typical of blocks for wet techniques, such as Watercolor. It is carried out by means of vinyl-based glue on all sides of the block, one of the corners is typically left free to facilitate tearing while keeping all sides firmly in place and avoiding the embarkation of sheets stressed by the humidity of the paint.
Glued binding (1 side glued block binding)
Binding by glued block one side: binding by means of glue carried out on one of the four sides of the block.
Alignment of the grain of the paper, so that in the production stage it is oriented in the running direction of the paper machine. The grain direction affects the quality of various printing and finishing operations, so it is important to check it before printing production. In most papers, the grain is oriented in parallel to the long side of the sheet. The second figure defining the measurements of a sheet indicates the side parallel to the grain direction. For example, the grain in a 64×88 cm sheet is parallel to the long side, while in an 88×64 cm sheet it is parallel to the short side.
The surface of the paper is the one that results from the production process without any marking or smoothing intervention.
The weight of the paper expressed in grammes per square metre. Grammage is used to distinguish between paper (40-150 g/m²), card (between 170 and 600 g/m²) and board (higher grammages).
Hand made paper
This quintessentially iconic art encompasses all the papers produced by hand in a traditional way exactly how the craftsmen were doing eight centuries ago when the history of paper making started in Fabriano.
Stiff cover binding. The cover elements (boards and spine) are lined with paper (or other binding materials, such as leather or cloth) and then secured to the body of the book (or book block) by the endpapers. The spine may be square (flat) or round (curved).
Hot Foil Stamping
Printing by hot transfer of a pigment from a foil to the printed sheet. It ensures perfect covering and bright colours, and is especially used to obtain very realistic metallic effects. Recently, digital systems have been developed that achieve a similar effect.
Satin grain, in case of watercolor paper. In the final phase of the production process the paper is pressed between cylinders with a very smooth surface in order to obtain the same effect on the paper. Obviously no marker felt is used to produce smooth papers.
This logo identifies the Fabriano Papers produced with at least 60%of hydropower energy. Thanks to this renewable source of energy, generated through small power plants owned by the company , we can lower the greenhouse gas emissions contributing to the safeguard of the environment.
A digital ink printing system that allows to obtain a result comparable to that of offset printing, using the principle of electrostatic charge. in addition to cmyk inks, it also allows the use of white and special colors. hp indigo machines are sheet fed (up to 72 × 52 cm) or roll fed (maximum width 76 cm). for an optimal result, they require the use of papers specially treated on the surface by the paper mill.
International standard that defines the formats for printed issues, used in particular in European countries. THE ISO 216 formats are divided into the A and B series and indicate the finished formats of the printed, in particular for correspondence. The C series, defined by the ISO 269 standard, refers to the formats for envelopes, designed to contain the A and B series. The best known formats are A4 and A3. Often these formats are called DIN, from the Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardization), which in 1922 fixed these measures for the first time, or in Italy UNI (from the Italian National Unification Body).
Paper obtained from laid moul. The laid lines and the chain lines are visible on the surface of the sheet when held not the light almost resembling a watermark.
Laid wire cloth
Wire cloth made up of a laid wires in bronze or brass wires with spacing between them and interlocked with metal chain wires. The wire cloth arranged in this way is then fixed by means of copper or brass nails onto the wooden frame and the laid wire cloth, in some cases, is supported by an underlying wire cloth backing.
Bronze or brass metal wires of various diameters fixed by means of chain wires.
System in which the support is engraved or cut by means of a laser beam that follows the drawing of a digital file. It can be used as an alternative to die-cutting to obtain holes and shapes, or to carve very detailed drawings that cannot be obtained with other systems.
Printing system with relief matrix, in which the text is traditionally set by hand with movable type in lead or wood and the images are reproduced with metallic k clichés. Currently, the production of relief matrices is mainly carried out starting from digital files using a photopolymer as support. Letterpress printing is a technique no longer used for commercial printing, but still much appreciated for fine art editions and publications.
The papers produced according to the ISO 9706 regulation are said LONG LIFE. It means that the paper has to be wood free (lignin free), with neutral- alkaline sizing and an alkaline buffer content, consisting in at least 2,5% of carbonate calcium to neutralize the acidic action of the environment.
“Fine” / ”coarse” grain based on the felt used for watercolor paper. The roughness of the surface is obtained through a felt, called a marker, which has a knotty surface due to the interweaving of the threads that compose it. Acting by pressure on the still damp paper reflects its irregularity on the surface of the paper itself which once dry will have a well-pronounced rough appearance.
Indispensable tool in the manufacturing of paper sheets, made up principally of a frame, wire cloth cover and deckle. The mould used for handmade paper is made up of a metal wire-mesh: the wire cloth cover, which is either laid or woven and fixed by means of copper or brass nails onto a rectangular wooden ribbed frame that can be made in various sizes. The main working- surface is demarcated by wooden frame called deckle hence in Italian “cascio”or “casso”, which is not fixed but removable and fitted onto the perimeter of the frame that holds the cellulose/fibrous pulp. limited by a wooden frame called deckle, not fixed but resting on the perimeter of the canvas to allow the tightness of the fibrous / cellulose dough. There are two types of shape: laid and wove. Two types of moulds exist: laid and wove mould.
Identifies the papers produced through mould cylinder machines. This kind of production gives to the paper unique characteristics similar to an hand-made paper, through an industrial process. These represent the highest paper quality available in the market.
A planographic and indirect printing process, where the printing surface comprises a metal plate marked with graphic elements by means of a digital procedure (Computer To Plate, CTP). Thanks to a chemical treatment of the surface, the printing areas attract ink and the free areas repel it. During the printing stage, the ink is transferred to a rubber roller and from this to the sheet of paper. Recently, UV and H-UV offset printing is becoming more popular. These techniques use special inks that are dried rapidly thanks to UV lamps inside the printing machine.
A physical feature of the paper that indicates how far it is able to not show texts and images printed on the opposite side. The opacity is related to the chemical composition of the paper and its thickness increases with the grammage.
Plastic Free Packaging
Identifies plastic-free wrappings. They can be disposed of as paper in the separate recycling collection.
A technique that allows you to create books with three-dimensional elements that open by flipping through the pages using complex systems of die cutting and folding.
Print on demand
A digital printing system that allows you to produce copies of a publication based on actual customer requests, avoiding printing an entire print run. It generally only allows a limited number of formats and bindings.
The number of copies of a printed job.
Set of fibrous materials and all the substances (fillers, glues, colors, various additives, etc.) that make up the paper.
It is the act of imprinting a sign, an image, etc. on the surface of the tissue canvas through the pressure or percussion of an instrument called a punch (in wood, bronze or copper).
The pack in which sheets of paper are sold; for A4 and A3 formats, a ream contains 500 sheets. Printing formats (70 × 100 cm and 64 × 88 cm), on the other hand, are sold in reams (or packs) with 250 or 125 sheets, depending on grammage.
Paper manufactured by re-using post-consumer waste, that is paper already previously printed and used. The percentage of recycled material may vary and virgin cellulose may be added to improve printability and whiteness. Recycled paper can be bleached through a chemical process known as de-inking.
Printing performed through a very fine mesh fabric screen mounted on a frame. The frame is treated with a photographic process to block the areas that must not be printed and leave the others free. The ink is pressed through the fabric and deposited on the sheet of paper below. Screen printing makes it possible to use very high coverage inks, including white, and to print on card/board, fabric or other materials that cannot be inserted into other printing presses.
A sheet of printed and folded paper. Depending on the number of folds, a signature may have from 4 to 64 pages.
Singer machine thread sewing
Sewing that can be used to bind booklets or pamphlets with only a few pages. It may be made along the central fold of the booklet, thereby allowing complete opening of the pages, or at the edge; in this case, opening will be partial.
Binding using soft covers in which the cover is glued directly to the book block. The signatures can be assembled with glue (perfect binding) or sewn (stitched binding).
The set of special finishing techniques that allow to enrich printed matter with particular details. Includes techniques such as hot foil stamping, thermographic printing or spot varnish. Some of these can be realised with digital technologies.
The lateral part of the cover of a book, or other printed and bound material, corresponding to its thickness. It may be flexible or rigid, depending on the type of binding; its dimensions depend on the number of pages and the thickness of the paper. The spine has the title of the book to facilitate identification on shelves.
A binding system that assembles a block of pages through perforations on the left side, into which a metal or plastic spiral can be inserted. Since it does not necessarily require the production of signatures, spiral binding makes it easy to bind pages of different materials and dimensions.
A simple binding implemented by folding and assembling one or more signatures, and a cover as required, and joining them in the centre with metal staples. This binding system is only effective with a limited number of pages (in general no more than 64) or when very thin paper is used. When a booklet assembled in this manner does not have a cover in a different material, it is said to be self- covered.
Binding in which the individual signatures are sewn in the middle and to each other before applying the glue to attach the cover. It is a strong binding that allows good opening of the book.
Identifies Totally Chlorine Free bleached wood pulp. It means that the bleaching process has been made without chlorine in any form.
This operation cuts a printed article to eliminate excess parts (trim) to achieve the finished format.
The term used for papers which have not undergone particular surface treatments to distinguish them from coated, felt-marked, embossed and other such papers.
Acronym of the Italian National Unification Body ISO 216.
All ingredients used in the production of the products indicated are free of animal components as well as the sizing which has vegetable origin.
The side of the sheet printed second. Reverse side.
A goldsmith term: a technique consisting in the processing of a nickel-silver, copper or bronze fine metal wire, which is hand-shaped with goldsmith tools, hand sewn or soft-welded onto the wire cloth of the mould or modeling of the wove wire cloth, impressed preventively by the punch. The term watermark is also used to identify the mark left behind on the paper-sheet by the metal wires during the feltration process, thus giving rise to lighter or darker shades, visible when holding the paper up to the light. The watermark may consist of a distinctive personalized design impressed onto the sheet (such as inscription, coat of arms, emblems of marks, etc.). there are various types of watermarks: in-light (obtained by sewing metal wires onto the wove or laid wire cloth), in light embossed, in-shade embossed, in light-and shade embossed onto the wove wire cloth, and in-shade embossed with a wire profile watermark in-light (a fine metal thread sewn onto the wove wire cloth).
Characteristic of some cards that allows you to avoid breaking when they are wet. It is indispensable for label papers, when the product can be immersed in water (for example, in the case of bottles of white wine or sparkling wine). To achieve this greater strength, small quantities of special resins or polymers are added to the paper during production.
Indicates a paper’s ability to reflect light and indirectly express its degree of brightness. High whiteness allows chromatically faithful reproduction of the original images. Low whiteness, on the other hand, is more appropriate for printing texts, since the lower reflection of light avoids reading fatigue. Various methods are available for controlling the whiteness of paper; the most common are ISO 2470 and CIE Whiteness (ISO 11475:2004).
Bonze or brass metal wires fixed onto the wooden frame by means of copper or brass nails.
Wire cloth backing
Fourth layer of laid or wove mould. Wire cloth which serves as a backing for the various layers of wire cloth which make up the wove moul (fourth layer of wire cloth). The backing wire cloth, in some cases, is there to support the laid wire cloth cover.
Wires cloth in warp to the cm
Number of threads of the weft that make up the fabric in 1 cm (wove wire cloth).
Wires cloth in weft to the cm
Number of warp threads that make up the fabric in 1 cm (wove wire cloth).
Paper obtained from a wove mould. As compared to laid paper, the laid lines are not visible when held to the light, however, a frosted glass affect is created.
Wove wire cloth
Fine-meshed wire cloth and flexible fabric – interlocking of twisted bronze or brass wires (in warp and in weft directions) arranged perpendicularly and fixed by means of copper or brass nails, onto the wooden frame. The wave wire cloth is supported by a series of layers of wire cloths, sewn together with a very subtle steel thread: an underlying wire cloth of reinforcement ( second layer), a perforated wire cloth (third layer) a further backing wore cloth ( fourth and last layer).